Why in news?
• The International Court of Justice (ICJ) stayed the execution of Kulbhushan Jadhav, who was sentenced to death by a Pakistan military court on the charge of spying, till its final decision. (ICJ and ICC covered later)
• The Court said that India should have been granted consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav as per the Vienna Convention.
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963
• It defines the guidelines for consular relations between the independent countries.
• A consul normally operates out of an embassy in a different country and performs two functions: (1) protecting the interests of the country and the countrymen of the consul, and (2) furthering the commercial and economic relations between the two countries.
• They are afforded most of the same privileges, including a variation of diplomatic immunity called consular immunity, but these protections are not as extensive.
Related information – Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961
• It is an international treaty of 1961 which gives a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries.
• It specifies the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to perform their functions without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country. It forms the legal basis for diplomatic immunity. India is a party to both the above conventions.
Why in news?
• Putting behind the Doklam standoff, India and China agreed to move forward in their ties. • This was the first time that India used troops to protect Bhutan’s territorial interests.
• It is a strategically vital 269 square km patch of Bhutan’s territory that Beijing laid claim to in the 1980s. It is an area with a plateau and a valley, lying between Tibet’s Chumbi Valley to the north, Bhutan’s Ha Valley to the east and India’s Sikkim state to the west.
Why in news?
There have been calls to review the 1950 India Nepal friendship treaty.
India-Nepal Friendship Treaty
It provides for-
• An open border between the two countries
• Allows Nepali nationals to work in India without a work permit, to apply for government jobs and the civil services (except for the IFS, IAS, and IPS)
• To open bank accounts and buy property.
India had waived its rights under reciprocity as a
4.1. JOINT INTERPRETIVE NOTES
Why in news?
• The union cabinet approved signing of the joint interpretative notes (JIN) on the Agreement for the Promotion & Protection of Investment.
Operation ‘Insaniyat’: The Ministry of External Affairs has started Operation Insaniyat to provide assistance to Bangladesh in response to humanitarian crisis being faced by it due to large influx of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar.
Significance of JIN
• The JIN would impart clarity to the interpretation of the existing agreement between India and Bangladesh for the Promotion and Protection of Investments. 1.4.2. INTEGRATED CHECK POSTS (ICP)
Why in News?
• India and Bangladesh have recently agreed to operate Petrapole-Benapole Integrated Check Posts.
• A separate body — the Land Port Authority of India (LPAI) — was constituted in 2011 to boost trade via the land border points. Integrated Check Posts
• It helps put in place a system to secure the country’s borders against hostile elements. It also facilitates trade and commerce and boosts revenue.
• Five ICPs — at Attari in Punjab (Pakistan border), Petrapole in West Bengal (Bangladesh border), Akhaura in Tripura (Bangladesh), Raxaul in Bihar (Nepal) and Jogbani in Bihar (Nepal) — are already functional.
About the Petrapole-Benapole ICP
• An estimated 60 percent of India-Bangladesh trade is conducted through the PetrapoleBenapole Check Post, Asia’s largest land customs station.
Land Port Authority of India (LPAI)
• It was established under Land Ports Authority of India Act, 2010 as a statutory body to function as a body corporate under the administrative control of the Department of Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs.
• It is mandated to plan, develop, construct, manage and maintain Integrated Check Posts (ICPs).