Environment – Climate Change

Environment – Climate Change


Recently, eighth edition of UN Environment’s Emissions Gap report was unveiled.

• It focuses on the difference between the emissions level the countries have pledged to achieve under international agreements (INDCs) and the level consistent with limiting warming to well below 2 degrees C.

• Insignificant Commitment: INDC pledges submitted by countries to reduce current emissions are only about one-third of what is needed to prevent catastrophic temperature increases by “at least” 3°C from pre-industrial levels by the year 2100.

• Greenhouse emissions: Though the total global greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase, the rate of growth has decreased over the past few years.

• Effect of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCP): It has been estimated that SLCP mitigation has the potential to avoid up to 0.6°C of warming by mid-century.

• Exploring “negative emission technologies” for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as an additional way to mitigate climate change, over and above conventional abatement strategies.

• It has pointed that three of the G20 parties — China, the EU, and India — are on track to meet their Cancun climate pledges (In Cancun summit of UNFCCC, Mexico, in 2011, nations had agreed to GHG emission cuts ahead of 2020).


Recently, India has been ranked 14th in Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI).
Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI)

• It is issued by Germanwatch, the New Climate Institute, and the Climate Action Network.

• The report ranks 56 countries and the European Union, which together are responsible for 90% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

• Countries are ranked across four categories — Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Renewable Energy, Energy Use, and Climate Policy.
Highlights of index

• India improved it’s ranking from 20th in 2017 to 14th in 2018, on account for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adopting more clean sources of energy.

• Top three positions on the Index still remain unoccupied as no country is currently on a Paris Climate Agreement-compatible pathway.


In 2017, Earth Overshoot Day fell on August 2, the earliest date since ecological overshoot began in the early 1970s.

• It is the date when humanity annual demand on nature exceeds what Earth can regenerate over the entire year.

• It is calculated by WWF and Global Footprint Network.

• It signifies that we have emitted more carbon than the oceans and forests can absorb in a year.

• In 2007 it fell on 15th August.


• In June 2017, OECD released a report titled “Green Growth Indicators 2017” highlighting the slow progress in achieving the Green Growth.
What is Green Growth?

• It is fostering economic growth and development while ensuring the natural assets continue to provide the resource and environment services on which our wellbeing relies.

• It is measured by Green Growth Indicators covering everything from land use to CO2 productivity and innovation like Environmental and resource productivity, The natural asset base, Environmental dimension of quality of life, Economic opportunities and policy responses
Highlights of report

• China and the US extract the most nonenergy raw materials followed by India and Brazil (mostly biomass), and South Africa and Canada (mostly metals).

• About 90% of green technologies originate in OECD countries, but the contributions of China and India are rising fast.

Global Green Growth Institution (GGGI)

• Headquartered in Seoul (South Korea) it is a treaty based inter-governmental organization.

• India is not founding member but associated with research work.

• Established in 2012, at the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development.

• Initiative on Green Growth and Development in India is a collaborative project of Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).

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