Dec 16, 1880 : First Boer war begins
- War started in south Africa
- Between Boer Republic & S.A. (transvall) to british empire
- This led to second independence of S.A.
The Rise of smart cities
(Connectivity, smart mobility, energy Management, parking, water management, Traffic, environmental sensor, public safety, urban planning)
Yellow vests spread all over the world
Yellow vest started in France for high cost of living.
- IN Netherland yellow vests turned out in Amsterdem, Rotterdam and the Hauge to protest high cost of living.
- In Hungry protesting a new law, which increase amount of overtime employers.
- In Poland farmer wear jacket to demand for compensation for a swine flue outbreak.
- In Germany, demonstrations at anti-migrant rally
- In Belgrade, opposition members of parliament donned yellow to protest fuel price hike.
- In south Africa, demonstrations against the low quality of public service.
- In Egypt, authorities fearing protest on the anniversary, Arab spring uprising have sought to restrict the sale of yellow vests.
- India, France review strategic ties, focus on space, N-energy.
- launched on August 2011
- Earth flyby gravity assist on Oct 2013
- Arrived at Jupiter in 2016
- fly over the great – rid spot
- came to an end Feb 2018
NASA’s JUNO is preparing its 16th close pass by Jupiter.
- To promote social Science Research in country.
- Government approved Revitalizing infrastructure & system in education by 2022.
- Scope to institution to be funded through higher education financing agency (HEFA).
- GOI, launched In Aug 2018, the scheme Impactful policy Research in social science (IMPRESS)
- Implementing agency – Indian council of social science & Research (ICSSR) [ established in year 1969]
- HEFA is joint venture MHRD & Canara Bank participation ratio 91% & 9% respectively.
Eklavya Model Residential schools
- EMRS for ST students
- Provisioning funds through Grants under Article 275.
Prayagraj kumbh Mela 2019
- celebrated 4 times in 12 year.
- Location – Haridwar (UK), Ujjain (MP), Nashik (Maharashtra), Praygraj
- Site celebration based on distinct set of astrological position of sun, Moon & Jupiter.
- UNESCO recognized in Representative list of Intagible culture Heritage of Humanity in 2017
Asbestos in Baby Powder
- Asbestos are found underground, and traces of it can be often found in talc deposits, leading to a rick of cross-contamination.
- Asbestos is set of 6 naturally occurring Silicate minerals which are soft and flexible.
- They known by their colors as – Highly toxic
- Blue Abestos, Brown Abestos , white asbestos, Green asbestos
Uses & Application
- Sound absorption
- Resistant to fire, heat & electricity
- used in application as electrical insulation for hot plate wiring & in building insulation
- Fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats.
Mount Soputan, Pacific Ring of Fire
- News : Most active volcanoes of Indonesia, Mount soputan volcano
- Located : on sulawesi island in Indonesia
- Indonesia is at meeting point of 3 major continental plates the pacific, The Eurasian and Indo-Australian plate & much smaller Phillipine plate.
Ring of Fire
- Pacific region home to over 450 volcanoes.
- Stretches along pacific ocean coastlines, where specific plate grinds each other.
- Tectonic plates such as Philippine sea plate and the Cocos to Nazca Plates that line edge & pacific ocean
- Most at risk are in US west coast, Chile, Japan & Island nation including Soloman Island
- How ring of fire formed- Result from subduction of oceanic tectonic plates beneath lighter continental plate. area where tectonic plate meets called subduction zone
Ring of Fire include 3 of world 4 most active volcano
- Mount St. Halens (USA)
- Mount Fiji (Japan)
- Mount Pnatubo (Philippines)
IO monuments adopted under Adopt A heritage project “Adopt a heritage” : Apni Darohar, Apni Pehchaan’
- Launched on September 2017
- Collaboration of ministry of tourism, ministry of culture, Archaeological survey of India (ASI), state/UTs government
- provide basis amenities that include cleanliness, safe drinking water, wi-fi etc.
- involvement of private/public organization & individuals to adopt monuments, tourist site, primarily under CSR. no founding is given by ministry of tourism.
- Sites : Red fort (Delhi) Ajanta cave (Maharashtra), Gandikota fort (Andhra Pradesh) , Leh Palace (Jammu and Kashmir), jantarMantar (Delhi) Hampi (Haza Rama Temple) (Karnakata), surajkund (Harjana) Area surrounding Gangotri temple qutubMinar (Delhi) and Trail of Gavmukh (Uttarakhand) Mount stock Kangri Trek (J & K).
Government to amend laws to let private company’s use Aadhaar
- Govt decided to amend
- Telegraph act & prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) in order to allow private entities such as banks & telecom sector provide access to Aadhar as KYC method.
- There will be a parallel platform for Aadhar verification using quick response (QR) codes without divulging 12-digit number.
- Penalties in civil disputes increased to 1 crore
- Imprisonment in data breach raised to 10 years from 3 years
- Parental consent must for Aadhar authentication of minors
Amitav ghosh becomes first writer in English to win Gyanpith Award 2018
- Award instituted in 1961
- Indian citizen who writes in any official language of India is eligible for the honor.
Giant Magellan Telescope
- Made up of 66 dishes.
- each gathers faint radio waves to digital information
- Telescope, 10 times sharper than Hubble
Panel nulls survey for OBC headcount
- Rohini Panel to focus on 1K communities which did not receive benefits in 25 years since implementation of Mandal report.
- OBC headcount through rural poverty survey that came to be known as socio-economic caste census.
National Medical Devices promotion council
- Headed by Department of industrial policy & promotion
- Andhra Pradesh Medtech zone of Vishakhapatnam provide support to the council
- NMDPC will be setup under ministry of commerce & industry
J & K criminal laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018
- J&K state Admin council (SAC) approve prevention of corruption (Amendment) Bill 2018 & J&K criminal laws (Amendment) Bill 2018
- To amend ranbir penal code
- To amend prevention of corruption Act
- Amendment seeks to specify offence under section 345E is being inserted to provide for the offence of Sextortion.
In J&K, in place of IPC, Ranbir penal code applies. it came in effect of 1932
- Ministry of state for communication launched e-commerce portal of Department of posts (DOP)
Post office saving bank (POSB)
- Launched under core banking solution (CBS)
- DOP launched scholarship program Deendayal sparsh
- Aim to bring philately of education system incentivising it in 2017.
ECO Niwas samhita 2018
Launched by Ministry of power
- An Energy conservation Building code for Residential Buildings (ECBC-R)
- code was launched on National Energy conservation Day 2018
- code is expected to assist large numbers of architect & builders who are involved in design & construction of new residential complexes.
National Energy Conservation award
Ministry of power in association with Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
- Statutory body under ministry of power
- Created in March 2002.
- to reduce energy intensity in country
- to reduce emission of green house gases (GHG)
India has committed to reduction of 33-35% GHG emission by 2030 as part of document submitted to UNFCCC.
- Delhi HC ban private firms from producing & selling oxytocin
- oxytocin has been dubbed the hug hormone, cuddle chemical, moral molecules & bliss hormone.
- It is hormone that is made in the brain, in the hypothalamus gland.
- Act both as hormone and as a brain neuro transmitter
- Alternative to it is, carbetocin by WHO.
- Why Banned : Misused in dairy industry, use to increase size of vegetables.
India to remain top position in remittances with $80 Billion
- Indian is world’s top recipient of remittances as per world bank report . India followed by china ($67 Billion), Maxico & phillipines ($34 Billion) $ Egypt ($26 Billion).
- Gulf co-operation council (GCC) is a regional intergovernmental political & economical block of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia & UAE.
National Pension Scheme launched in 2004 for Government Employees, in 2009 it was opened to all.
- Scheme allows subscribers to contribute regulars in a pension account during their working life. on retirement, can withdraw a part, to secure regular income after retirement.
- Managed by pension fund regulatory & Development authority (PFRDA)
- Any Indian citizen between 18-60 years can join NPS who comply KYC norms.
- NRI can join NPS but account will be closed if there is change in citizenship status of NRI
- subscriber get permanent retirement account No. (PRAN) which can be operated anywhere in India.
- NPS returns are market linked.
- Exit : After attaining age of 60 years or after completion of 10 years.
- changes only 40% of corpus is tax free earlier now entire withdrawal be exempt from tax as tax exemption limit for lump-sum withdrawal enhanced to 60%.
- Central Government employees will be provided with freedom of choice for selection of pension funds & pattern of investment.
- Mandatory contribution by central government enhanced to 14% from 10% under NPS Tier – I
online portal ensure
- under department of animal husbandry, Dairy and fisheries
- Ensure National livestock Mission EDEG developed by NABARD
- EDEG (Entrepreneurship development & employment generation )
- subsidies payment for activities related to poultry, small ruminants, pig etc through Direct bank Transfer (DBT) goes directly to account.
National Tiger conservation Authority (NTCA) Released a report Tiger morality in the country
NTCA statutory body, under MOEFCC constituted and wildlife protection Act, 1972
- Ensuring normative standard in tiger reserve management
- preparation of reserve specific tiger conservation plan
- laying down annual report to parliament
- Account approval for declaration of new tiger reserves.
- Campaign launched to save great Indian bustard from extinction, wildlife organization launch campaign are the Corbett foundation in collaboration with conservation India & sanctuary nature foundation.
- Listed in schedule 1 of WPA (wildlife protection act) 1972.
- In CMS convention & appendix I of CITES.
- Critically endangered on IUCN red list.
- Identifies as one of the species for the recovery program under integrated development of wildlife habitat.
- Project GIB – Rajasthan (on world environment day 2013).
- Desert national park sanctuary – Rajasthan
- Rollapadu wildlife sanctuary – Andhra Pradesh
- Karera wildlife Sanctuary – Madhya Pradesh
Trans Regional Maritime Network (TRMN)
- India Signed agreement to TRMN
- Multilateral construct comprises of 30 countries and is steered by Italy.
- India already has bilateral white shipping agreements with 36 countries.
- facilitates information exchange on the monument of commercial traffic on the high seas
- Information available primarily through Automatic Identification system (AIS)
India, Nepal, Bhutan plan joint task force to Project wildlife
- To allow free movement of wildlife across political boundaries and checking smuggling of wildlife across Kanchenjunga landscape
- According to International center for integrated Mountain development (ICIMOD) around 74% area converted to rangeland, 26% to agriculture land. it is home for 169 species of mammals & 713 special birds.
Cyclone Phethai to make landfall in Andhra Pradesh over south-west and adjoining west central bay of Bengal Likely to move N-NW & cross Andhra Pradesh coast around Kakinada
- Sedimentary rock, rich in organic chemical called kerogen
- kerogen releases HC, HC used as alternative to petroleum or natural gas
- Oil shale is a fossil fuel that formed inside earth millions of years
- Oil shale is in solid form
- It is first mined, then heated at high temperature & resultant liquid is separated to get oil
- Extraction process produces large amount of greenhouse Gases
- Telecom dispute settlement & appellate tribunal
- TRAI Act 1997 was amended in 2000 & TDSAT was set up.
- It adjudicate disputes & dispose of appeals with a view to protect the interests of service providers & consumers of telecom sector
NASA’s ICEsat – 2
Ice, cloud and land elevation satellite – 2 (Launch September 2018)
- To measure changes in the heights of Earth’s polar ice to understand cause of ice sheets to melt fast.
- measure land ice covering Greenland & Antarctica to within the width of pencil, capturing 60,000 measurement every second.
Index of Industrial Production
- Measures short term measures in volume of production during given period.
- Monthly published by CSO, Ministry of static & program implementation (MOSPI)
- Base year 2011-12
- Comprises 407 individual items, fall into 3 categories :
- Manufacturing, Mining, Electricity.
Right to Fair compensation & Transparency in hand Acquisition rehabilitation & Resettlement Act 2013 (LARR Act)
- Activist questioned the changes in Act by Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Jharkhand, &Tamilnadu
- petitioner content that amendments were in violation of Article 21.
Define various type of public purpose project for which Government acquire private land.
Acquiring land : for private project, 80% affected family must agree, and for PPP project 70% affected family must agree
composition :Rural area : 4 times the market rate urban area : 2 time
Social impact Assessment : SIA need to obtain consent of affected person
Government setup dispute settlement chairman, must be a judge or lawyer for 7 year.
Accountability :Head of department responsible from Government side If project doesn’t start in 5 years, land return to original owner.
Ministry of Rural development :Department of land resources
Fixed Dose Combinations
FDC is a cocktail of two or more active drug ingredient in fixed ratio of doses.
health care provider IMS Health- half of the drug sold in India in 2014 were FDC making it world leader in combination drug.
Central drug standard control organization (CDSCO) under Directorate general of health services, Ministry of health & Family welfare GOI is national regulatory authority (NRA) of India.
under drug & cosmetic Act, CDSCO is responsible for approval of new drugs,
- conduct of clinical trials
- laying down standard for drugs
- Along with state regulators jointly responsible for grant of licenses of certain specialized categories of critical drugs (E.g, IV fluids, vaccine, sera, blood products)
Drug & cosmetic Act
- Devices such as nebulizers, blood pressure monitors, digital thermometers and glucometer notified as drug.
- Drug controller – General of India (DGI) would regulate the import, regulate & sale of these devices from Jan 2020.
- All device have to be registered under quality parameters prescribed under medical device rules 2017 & Bureau of Indian standard (BIS) certification
Agni – V Missile
|· solid propellant|
· Three stage missile
- Nuclear capable ballistic missile, long-range missiles
- from Dr. Abdul kalam Island off Odisha coast
Agni – V
|· Micro inertial navigation system|
· Ring layer, Gyro-based inertial navigation system
· Also accelerometer for navigation & guidance
- Intercontinental surface to surface nuclear capable ballistic missile developed by DRDO
- Range over 5000Km. & carry about 1500 kg warhead
- fire & forget system that can’t be easily detected, it follows a ballistic trajectory
- Agni V as a weapon of peace
- Only China, France, Russia, US and Britain along with Israel have processed such long range missiles
Agni – I
- Developed by DRDO
- Short range ballistic missile
- Specialized navigation system
- Single stage Missile, powered by solid propellant
- Range – 700 Km.
Agni – 2 : 2000 Km
Agni – 3 : 2500 Km.
Agni -4 : 4000 Km.
Cope India 2018
- 12 day exercise between US and Indian air force at Kalapkunda air station in West Bengal.
- Exercise follows the joint international Air drill of Pak & China began at shaheen VII airbase in Pak earlier.
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to take a short break, Resume functioning from 2021
|Location : French-switzerland border near Geneva|
- LHC is world’s largest and most powerful particle collider & largest machine in world
- Built by European organization for nuclear Research (CERN)
- 27 km- ring contain powerful magnets via which subatomic particles fired in opposite direction so as to smash into each other of speed of light.
- Allow physicists to test different theories of particle physics
Getting vijaymallya declared fugitive
- offender next target
- under fugitive economic offender Act 2018
Fugitive economic offender (FEO) Act
- Arrest warrant issue if value > 100 crore
- Left the country & refuses to return prosecution
- Refuses to return to India to face criminal prosecution
- Barring person from filling & defending claims as violation of Article 21.
- Provide special court power to exempt properties in which there area vested interest.
- No Requirement of search warrant, so no safeguard against harassment & planting false evidence
UN committee on Economic, social & cultural Rights
- Set up in 1985.
- By the Economic & social council (ECOSOC) of UN.
- Aim to Monitor on its behalf the implementation of the International convent on Economic, social & cultural Rights (ICESR).
- Ratified by 169 countries.
- CECSR meets in Geneva & held two session per year.
GM crops a failure ?
- According to a research paper GM crops considered to be failure.
- GM crops such as BT Cotton, a transgenic mustard hybrid failed agriculture technology.
GM or transgenic crop is a plant that has a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
Benefit : Higher crop yield, increase farm profit, reduce farm cost, improvement in health.
Demerits : Lack of clarity
- Threat to domestic crop.
- There is also a potential for pests to evolve resistance.
Change- 4 mission
- Launched by China.
- First probe ever to explore the dark side of the moon.
- no lander or rover touch the surface there, positioning china as first nation to explore area.
- No direct ‘line of sight’ for communication as moon always point away from the sun.
UN frame work to combat international terrorism
- UN launched framework titled UN global counter – Terrorism coordination compact
- Framework is an agreement between UN chief, 36 organisation entities, world customs and international criminal police organization (INTERPOL)
|INTERPOL – |
· Established in 1923.
· Headquarter – France
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
- 160th session of FAO in Rome approved India’s proposal to observe an International Year of Millets in 2023.
- FAO also approved India’s membership to executive board of UN world food program (WFP) for 2020-2021.
- India celebration 2018 as National year of Millets for promoting cultivation & consumption of Nutra cereals (i.e. millets – Jawar, Bajra, Rogi etc.)
- Headquater : Rome, Italy
- Founded : Oct 1945
- Goal : To achieve food security for all.
- Has 194 members states along with EU
- It is parent organization in UN economic & social council (ECOSOC)
India abstains from UN vote to condemn Hamas violence
- India abstain voting on resolution which condemned Hamas for firing rockets into Israel & for inciting violence, thereby putting civilians at risk.
- Gaza to construct military infrastructure.
Chabahar attack : India needs to be alert
- India is strategically engaged with construction of a port in venture thus has a vacuum – filling crucial dimension in relation with Iran and Afghanistan.
- Gateway to central Asia : Port in Iran would be India’s gateway to landlocked Afghanistan & other central Asian countries.
- Regional connectivity : North – south corridor.
- Influence in Indian Ocean Region : Iran being IOR, is important success of project Mausam, Sagarmala to counter influences of china in Pak & POK.
- Act as a counter to Gwadar port which china use for naval purpose to connect with Afghanistan.
Govt to push instant talaq bill, opposed to focus on Rafale
De-notified & Nomadic Tribes
Time to repeal habitual offender act (HOA), which only ended up re-stigmatizing marginal community De-notified Tribes (DNT) of India, considered criminal by birth. Term de-notified & Nomadic tribes, can be traced to Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) 1871.
After independence these tribes were de-notified from list of criminals & hence the term CTA being repealed. Habitual offender Act (HOA) being enacted in various states. various HOA model bill that stand enforce in states across country.
To address DNT issues, the first National commission for de-notified, Notified & semi nomadic tribes (NCDNT) was constituted in 2003.
NCDNT reports recommends repealing of various HOAs.
Subramanian as chief economic advisor
Krishnamurty subramanian as CEA for 3 year tenure.
- Economic advisor of GOI
- Ex-officio cadre controlling authority of Indian economic service.
- Under direct charge of Minister of Finance
- Heads economic division under department of economic Affairs (DEA)
- enjoys equal rank and pay equivalent to that of secretary of India.
Karmapa new a Dominion citizen karma Kaggu school
- One of the union schools of tibetan Buddhism
- Karma kaggu lineage has its roots in teaching of historical Buddha and developed into practical way to enlightenment in India & Tibet
- Karmpas heat of karma kaggu lineage
Maldives has applied to rejoin commonwealth
- Former name : British commonwealth
- Composition : Intergovernmental organization of 53 members states that are mostly former territories of British empire operates big intergovernmental consensus to member state.
- Established : 1949 by the London declaration.
- Commonwealth nations are free & equal.
based on renewable raw material maize, wheat or sugarcane
- Bioplastics – promoted as climate friendly alternative
- petroleum based plastics – may lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emission.
- Bioplastics are variety of plastics that are manufactured using renewable sources like vegetable oil/fats, corn starch or microbiota
|ü Consumes CO2 which compensate to amount that later release at end-of-life|
ü But Bioplast produce in large amount would change land globally
ü use in conversion of forest area to arable land
Different type of bioplastic
- Starch based ® PLA ® PA11
- Cellulose based ® PHB
- Reduce carbon footprint ® Non-Toxic
- Energy saving in production ® Reduce Non-biodegradable waste
- Production requires almost 80% of energy requires to produce common plastic
- cause enormous harm to ecosystem
- No proper differentiation between visual plastic & bio-plastic
Ex Avianindra 2018
Exercise between Indian Air Force & Russian Federation (Nerospace force RFSAF) planned at Airforce station jodhpur
- First exercise conducted in 2014, planned as bi-annual exercise. 2018 is second in series
- Aim to focus toward anti-terrorist operations
- Russia has major partner of India in defence sector.
Amendments to the citizenship Roles, 2009 union Home Ministry notified the amendments
- Amendment include a separate column in the citizenship form for applicants belonging to 6 minority communities from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh
Citizenship Amendment Bill 2016
- To amend citizenship Act 1955
- If passed, illegal migrant from certain minority communities from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan will be eligible for Indian citizenship.
- These citizens gains permanent citizenship after 6 years of residency instead of 11 years mentioned in citizenship Act 1955
- The registration of OCI card holder get cancelled if they violate any law.
1st International conference on sustainable water management at Mohali in punjab
First International conference under aegis of National hydrology Project
- Union ministry of water Resources, River development and Ganga Rejuvenation is being organized by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB) at Indian school of Business (ISB), Mohali
- Theme : Sustainable water management
- To promote sustainable policies for water management
- Create awareness of water-related problem
- Bring advancement in water management system to further reduce flood & droughts all over the globe
- Promote better management of water resources at local, regional, national & international levels
Amazon River Dolphin listed as Endangered by IUCN
- Two types of Amazon River Dolphin – Boto & Tucuxi
- Reason for decline is “use of flesh & blubber as bait for catfish.
Exercise Hand – In – Hand 2018
- Conducted annually as a part of military diplomacy and interaction between armies of India & China
- Exercise involve operations in International counter Insurgency/counter terrorist environment under UN Mandate
Cabinet approves agriculture export policy 2018
- To double agriculture exports from present US $30 Billion to US $60 Billion by 2022
- Enable farmers to get benefit & export opportunities
- Promote novel, indigenous, organic, ethnic, traditional & non-traditional Agri products
- come out with a policy to double farmers income by 2022.
Beach pollution In India
|Theme of Earth Day 2018|
“End Plastic Pollution”
Report by national center of Coastal Research (NCCR)
- Tourism & Fishing are biggest culprits, contributing most of plastic litter on beaches.
- NCCR conducted study of 6 different beaches on eastern & western coast .
|Beaches : –|
Chennai Fillot Beach ,Gopalpur in Odisha , Fort kochi Beach , Karnataka Karavar Beach
Vishakhapatnam RR Beach, Andaman Island Rangachang Beach
- India needs to start blue-flogging its beaches,
- blue flag is globally recognized as eco-label award.
Blue Flag Project
- Launched in Dec 2017, by Environment Ministry
- Objective : to enhance standard & cleanliness, upkeep and basic amenities of beaches
Criteria for certification
- A beach has to comply with 33 environment & tourism related conditions.
India-Pak Tension Affect $ 37 Billion trade potential : report
- Report by world bank
- Titled : Glass Half Full : The premise of regional trade in South Asia
Four critical barriers to regional trade
- Tariffs & Para tariffs
- Broad trust deficit
- Real & perceived non-tariff barrier
- Connectivity cost
South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA)
- SAFTA came into force since Jan 2006, replacing South Asian preferential trade agreement (SAPTA) which was operative among SAARC countries Since Dec 1995
- Leaders of India, pak, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Srilanka, have agreed to create SAFTA
Over 100 new exoplanets found
- Used Data from NASA’s kepler space telescope & ground based observatories
- Exoplanets : which revolves around the star other than the sun
Centre approves ShahpurKandi project, work to be over by 2022
- 206 MW, shahpurkandi Dam on ravi river on Punjab and J&K border
- Dam will minimize the outflow of the river water that goes waste through the madhopur headworks to Pakistan
- shahpurkandi Dam is a part of Thein Dam (ranjitsagar Dam) project which is built over 61% of J&K Island.